In order to grow a beautiful pear orchard, regular and proper care is needed. One of the main processes is fertilizing. Every fruit grower needs to know what fertilizer is needed for pears in the fall. Timely, proper dressing - the key to a good harvest next season.
Why feed a pear in autumn
Feeding pears make spring, summer and autumn. Autumn feeding is especially important, as yield and fruit quality depend on it. It is needed to compensate for the nutrients spent by the plant during growth and during the fruiting period, as well as to increase the resistance to winter cold. During low temperatures, an unprepared tree may die.
Features of autumn feeding pears in winter
Autumn top dressing is brought to the tree trunk, retreating 60 cm from the tree trunk. She will allow to stock up to a plant all necessary nutrients for long wintering. For young seedlings, fertilizing is made through digging, 2 years after planting. If before planting the soil was treated, and the pit was fertilized according to the rules, the sapling is not fed.
If you do not produce autumn dressing, you can observe:
- reduced immunity;
- deterioration of the taste of the fruit;
- chopping foliage.
Dates of autumn feeding
Autumn pear fertilized 2 times. The first - after the removal of the fruit. For this purpose, mineral complexes with nitrogen are used. Nitrogen contribute to recuperate after fruiting, no later than the beginning of September. If nitrogen is introduced later, the plant will begin to actively increase its green mass, which adversely affects the tree in winter.
The second, depending on the region of growth, fertilizing is made from mid-September to mid-November, when the foliage turns yellow by more than 30%. During this period, make peat, rotted manure or humus. This method will not only enrich the pear with essential trace elements, but will also become a warm pillow for the roots. The nutrient layer must be at least 15 cm.
How to feed a pear in autumn
A fruit tree can grow in one place for more than 20 years. During this time, the root system sucks out all the juices and nutrients from the ground. Therefore, it is necessary to regularly feed. In the fall, the pear is fed with organic and mineral fertilizers.
Mineral fertilizers for pears in the fall
To grow a rich harvest, chemical additives are needed. Properly used dose will improve the yield, normalizes the exchange process, will positively affect the budding of flower buds and strengthen the immune system. For dwarf, columnar and short growing varieties, the dosage should be one third lower.Important! Feeding is carried out only after abundant watering.
Potassium for pears is very important, especially before wintering. After all, this trace element helps the culture to endure the winter cold. It removes excess moisture from the cells, which leads to thickening of the juice.
Wood ash is a popular plant raw material, but it is rational to make it only on heavy clay soil. The optimal dosage is 1 tbsp. on 1 square. m. Wood ash is laid out under a pear tree, plentifully shed, the soil is mulched with 15 cm layer of straw, dry leaves, spruce needles or cones.
Of the finished products use the drug "Kalimagneziya". This fertilizer is composed of not only potassium, but also magnesium. For dilution of fertilizer to 10 liters of water add 20 g of the drug. Prepared solution shed pristvolny circle. You can also use potassium sulfate, diluting it strictly according to the instructions.
Phosphorus - is responsible for the growth and development of the plant. The lack of trace element affects the quality of the budding and the subsequent yield. The lack of phosphorus can be determined by untimely leaf fall and the small size of the leaf plate. On 1 square. m. you must make one of the drugs:
- simple superphosphate - 45 g;
- double - 30 g;
- granulated - 45 g.
Fertilizing in the pits will give the best result. To do this, dig holes around the trunk to a depth of 20 cm. In each hole, the necessary dosage of top dressing is put, sprinkled with soil, shed and mulched.
Also, many gardeners use combined fertilizers. They are appreciated for ease of use and good results. The structure includes not only phosphorus and potassium, but also a specialized component for a vegetable garden. The most popular drugs: "Fruit Garden", "Universal", "Autumn for garden crops." When using fertilizers, it is necessary to carefully read the instructions and follow the recommended dosage.
Most gardeners prepare complex mineral dressings on their own.
Option number 1
- potassium chloride - 1 tbsp. l .;
- superphosphate - 2 tbsp. l .;
- water - 10 l.
All ingredients are mixed in warm water until completely dissolved. Prepared fertilizer spend irrigation pristvolnoy circle.
Option number 2
Use immediately after fruiting, until the first autumn month.
- urea - 1 tbsp. l .;
- superphosphate - 2 tbsp. l .;
- potassium chloride - 1 tbsp. l .;
- phosphate rock - 1.5 tbsp. l .;
- ash - 2 tbsp .;
- ammofosk - 3 tbsp. l
All ingredients are mixed and scattered at a distance of 60 cm from the stem. After prikormki land plentifully shed.Important! It must be remembered that an overdose of fertilizers can lead to a poor final, therefore it is necessary to strictly observe the dosage.
Top dressing of a pear in the fall manure
Organic fertilizers are the most reliable and effective dressings. Ecologically clean crop without organic does not grow. A favorite since ancient times and to this day remains manure. The frequency of application depends on the age of the tree and on the fertility of the soil:
- up to 7 years - no more than 2 buckets per square meter. m;
- over 8 years - 3-4 buckets.
Bird droppings - lightweight version, which can be made under the pear in dry form. Dry granules are buried in the ground near the stem and abundantly shed.
Other organic fertilizers
Feeding pears in autumn can be done with other fertilizers, such as:
- ash from the burning of potato tops and sunflower, mixed with humus;
- compost - laid out around the trunk with a thickness of at least 10 cm;
- siderats - in the near-stem circle are sown in spring or autumn.
Top dressing rules
The main feature of fertilization is the occurrence of the root system. Therefore, in advance make shallow grooves, which make mineral fertilizers dissolved in water.
After fertilizer application, soil is poured abundantly. If fertilizing make in rainy weather, watering is not needed. To determine the degree of soil moisture, you need to take a clod of earth from a depth of 10 cm and squeeze it in your palm. If the earth turned into a cake, it means that there is enough moisture in the soil; if it crumbles, you need abundant watering. The irrigation rate is 2 buckets per 1 adult.
Experienced Gardeners Tips
Before fertilizing, you should familiarize yourself with the advice of experienced gardeners:
- Organics can be made under the tree over 4 years.
- Nutrients are absorbed within 3-4 weeks, so before starting the frosts it is pointless to add top dressing.
- Before feeding the pear is prepared: remove dry, broken branches and foliage around the stem.
- Lightening foliage speaks of a lack of nitrogen. Therefore, in mid-August, the pear can be fed with nitrogenous fertilizers. The main thing is to comply with the dosage, otherwise the plant can overwinter badly, and in spring a large amount of foliage will bloom on the tree to the detriment of the crop.
- If in the autumn the pear is not fed with phosphorus, it will not release the foliage and will not form fruit.
- If by the end of the summer foliage twisted, covered with spots, it means that the potassium reserve has dried up. It is in this mineral that the pear will especially need in winter. And if the foliage turned pale, and around the edges it turned purple, then the plant lacks magnesium and you need to use complex mineral supplements.
Properly applied fertilizer for pears in the autumn is a guarantee of a high yield of tasty and fragrant fruits. The main thing is not to hurry, but to show restraint, consciousness and observe the dosage.